You will not be charged twice.
The tax will be for different tax years.
The tax retrun submitted will be for the 2022/23 tax year.
The rental income will have been included in your tax code going forward so that tax is deducted over the course of the 2023/24 tax year.
This would mean that when you submit your 2023/24 tax year you will get the credit for the tax paid on the rental income and have a smaller balance to pay.
If you do not want the rental income included in your tax code you will need to contact HMRC to remove.
The tax due on the rental income would then be collected when you file your Self Assessment tax return.
Self Assessment: general enquiries